# The World of Quantum Theory

**Quantum mechanics** (QM — also known as **quantum physics**, or **quantum theory**) is a branch of **physics** which deals with **physical phenomena** at nanoscopic scales where the action is on the order of the Planck constant. It departs from **classical mechanics** primarily at the** quantum realm of atomic** and **subatomic length scales**. **Quantum mechanics** provides a **mathematical** description of much of the dual particle-like and wave-like behavior and interactions of energy and matter. **Quantum mechanics** provides a substantially useful framework for many features of the modern periodic table of elements including the behavior of atoms during chemical bonding and has played a significant role in the development of many modern technologies. In advanced topics of **quantum mechanics**, some of these behaviors are macroscopic (see **macroscopic quantum phenomena**) and emerge at only extreme (i.e., very low or very high) energies or temperatures (such as in the use of superconducting magnets).

For example, the angular momentum of an electron bound to an atom or molecule is quantized. In contrast, the angular momentum of an unbound electron is not quantized. In the context of quantum mechanics, the wave–particle duality of energy and matter and the uncertainty principle provide a unified view of the behavior of photons, electrons, and other atomic-scale objects. The mathematical formulations of **quantum mechanics** are abstract. A mathematical function, the wavefunction, provides information about the probability amplitude of position, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle. Mathematical manipulations of the wavefunction usually involve bra–ket notation which requires an understanding of complex numbers and linear functionals.

The wavefunction formulation treats the particle as a **quantum harmonic** oscillator, and the mathematics is akin to that describing acoustic resonance. Many of the results of **quantum mechanics** are not easily visualized in terms of classical mechanics. For instance, in a **quantum** mechanical model the lowest energy state of a system, the ground state, is non-zero as opposed to a more “traditional” ground state with zero kinetic energy (all particles at rest). Instead of a traditional static, unchanging zero energy state, **quantum mechanics** allows for far more dynamic, chaotic possibilities, according to John Wheeler.

The earliest versions of **quantum mechanics** were formulated in the first decade of the 20th century. About this time, the atomic theory and the corpuscular theory of light (as updated by Einstein)[1] first came to be widely accepted as scientific fact; these latter theories can be viewed as **quantum theories** of matter and electromagnetic radiation, respectively. Early **quantum theory** was significantly reformulated in the mid-1920s by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and Pascual Jordan, (matrix mechanics); Louis de Broglie and Erwin Schrödinger (wave mechanics); and Wolfgang Pauli and Satyendra Nath Bose (statistics of subatomic particles). Moreover, the Copenhagen interpretation of Niels Bohr became widely accepted.

By 1930, **quantum mechanics** had been further unified and formalized by the work of David Hilbert, Paul Dirac and John von Neumann[2] with a greater emphasis placed on measurement in **quantum mechanics**, the statistical nature of our knowledge of reality, and philosophical speculation about the role of the observer. **Quantum mechanics** has since permeated throughout many aspects of 20th-century physics and other disciplines including **quantum chemistry**, **quantum electronics**, **quantum optics**, and **quantum information science**. Much 19th-century physics has been re-evaluated as the “classical limit” of quantum mechanics and its more advanced developments in terms of quantum field theory, string theory, and speculative quantum gravity theories.

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