What Is Quantum Teleportation?
In 2017, Chinese scientist were able to teleport a photon to a satellite in the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) of Earth. This news spread like a wildfire. Some even thought that teleportation that was shown in ‘Star Trek’ was now possible. But it wasn’t the case. What they achieved was in fact Quantum teleportation. What teleportation actually means is, dematerialising a body from one place and materialising it at another. But what the scientist obtained was Quantum teleportation, which means transferring Quantum information without any medium. In the rest of the video we will tack about what is Quantum Teleportation and is it reality?
The idea of teleportation has been around in fiction and mythology for over a thousand years. As discussed above Quantum teleportation is very different from the classical teleportation, because only the quantum information is transferred. Quantum computers can make future networking and communication hacking proof. In today’s world , we have successfully done this experiment over a thousand times using photons. What exactly is Quantum teleportation? In Quantum teleportation one object is not transferred from one place to other rather it’s quantum information is teleported without any medium. The no cloning and no deleting theorem tells us that quantum information neither be copied nor destroyed. But before that we need to understand Quantum entanglement. When a parent particle with zero spin decays and creates two particles. Spin is a conserved quantity so it means that it cannot change and so, the daughter particles have opposite spin.All fundamental particles in the universe have a property called spin .this does not means that they actually spin, but they possess an angular momentum and an inclination in space. We can measure this spin of particle. As a result we get two outcomes, either up spin or down spin, both having a chance of 50-50% for outcome unless observed by an observer . If one is up the other will be down, so tahrs the simplest example of quantum entanglement, in which two particles have opposite spin and have a single wave function. Quantum engagement allows for weird behaviour to be seen in the sizes as big as humans and more. The important thing here is that both the particles have a single wave function that governs both of the particles. These particles are then called entangled particles. The entanglement doesn’t depends upon the particles being close to each other. As long as the two particles don’t interact with anything we can separate them by feet, miles or even more distances and the two particles are connected by a single wave function and have opposite spins. Under certain circumstances, when two particles are created from a single particle, then the two particles show a very unique link to each other . This link in known as quantum entanglement .This idea seems a bit weird and called it ‘spooky action’, claiming on multiple occasions that ” God does not play dice ” and it would also ruled out the theory of relativity . However , Einstein ’s idea was dismissed and Bohr ’s idea still remains a vital part of modern physics. In quantum computing and teleporting qubits are used. They have the same function as the bits we use today. The difference between qubits and bits is that, the value of bit can be either 0 or 1, but the value of a qubit can be both 0 and 1 simultaneously! This is the reason why quantum computers are way more faster than today’s computers. To understanding quantum teleportation lets consider two people Alex and Brandy. Alex is on earth and Brandy is at ISS. Alex wants to transfer a photon C to brandy. For this process we will need a pair of entangled particles. Let’s call each of the entangled particles as A and B respectively. Now, Alex will keep a one of the particles, A, with him and the other one B will be with Brandy.
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