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In Real Life, How to Make a Quantum Tunnel ?

What is quantum tunneling ?

Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (US) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a wavefunction can propagate through a potential barrier.

The transmission through the barrier can be finite and depends exponentially on the barrier height and barrier width. The wavefunction may disappear on one side and reappear on the other side. The wavefunction and its first derivative are continuous. In steady-state, the probability flux in the forward direction is spatially uniform. No particle or wave is lost. Tunneling occurs with barriers of thickness around 1–3 nm and smaller.

Some authors also identify the mere penetration of the wavefunction into the barrier, without transmission on the other side as a tunneling effect. Quantum tunneling is not predicted by the laws of classical mechanics where surmounting a potential barrier requires potential energy.

Quantum tunneling plays an essential role in physical phenomena, such as nuclear fusion. It has applications in the tunnel diode, quantum computing, and in the scanning tunneling microscope.

The effect was predicted in the early 20th century. Its acceptance as a general physical phenomenon came mid-century.

Quantum tunneling is projected to create physical limits to the size of the transistors used in microelectronics, due to electrons being able to tunnel past transistors that are too small.

Tunneling may be explained in terms of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in that a quantum object can be known as a wave or as a particle in general. In other words, the uncertainty in the exact location of light particles allows these particles to break rules of classical mechanics and move in space without passing over the potential energy barrier.

Quantum tunnelling may be one of the mechanisms of proton decay

Watch video explainer 

In this experiment I show you to perform quantum tunneling. I first explain what quantum tunneling actually is, then I show you how to make it happen. I talk about total internal reflection and how light can bounce off boundary layers and then how light can actually tunnel through it.

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